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The most prominent terms of the Ukrainian crisis

The most prominent terms of the Ukrainian crisis

Ukraine announced the imposition of a state of emergency in the country for a period of 30 days and the start of calling up reservists in light of military tensions with Russia on the eastern border, in return, Europe and the United States announced sanctions against Moscow after its decision to recognize the independence of Lugansk and Donetsk.

The most prominent terms of the Ukrainian crisis Ukraine announced the imposition of a state of emergency in the country for a period of 30 days and the start of calling up reservists in light of military tensions with Russia on the eastern border, in return, Europe and the United States announced sanctions against Moscow after its decision to recognize the independence of Lugansk and Donetsk.


The developments of the Ukrainian crisis created a set of concepts and terms that express the security and geopolitical complexities surrounding the file. The following are the highlights of the crisis terminology.


Ukraine announced the imposition of a state of emergency in the country for a period of 30 days and the start of calling up reservists in light of military tensions with Russia on the eastern border, in return, Europe and the United States announced sanctions against Moscow after its decision to recognize the independence of Lugansk and Donetsk.


separatists

The overthrow of President Viktor Yanukovych in February 2014 angered his loyalists in his hometown of Donbass, eastern Ukraine, declaring - unilaterally - the creation of two popular republics, Donetsk "DPR" and Luhansk "LPR", with Russian support, which is one of the symptoms of the Ukrainian crisis.


The British Guardian newspaper indicates that the area of ​​the two cities is 6,500 square miles (16,835 square km approximately) and is famous for its heavy industries and coal mining, and about 3 million people live in them, less than half of the population before the outbreak of the crisis. On February 21, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced his country's recognition of the two republics and signed two friendship and cooperation agreements with them due to Ukraine's lack of commitment to peaceful solutions by implementing the Minsk agreements, he said.


Normandy formula

A four-way dialogue mechanism was launched in June 2014, comprising France, Germany, Russia and Ukraine, to contribute to reducing tensions and ending the Ukrainian crisis, and led to the formation of the tripartite contact group that sponsored the Minsk agreements.


Triple Contact Group (TCG)

The group consisted of representatives of Russia, Ukraine and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, as well as the participation of separatist representatives to hold technical consultations for the peace plan in the Donbass region, which led to the signing of the Minsk Accords, and the formation of 4 working groups (political, economic, security and humanitarian) to implement the commitments of each party.


Minsk agreements

According to the Center for Strategic and International Studies, the Minsk agreements signed in the Belarusian capital include a protocol and the Minsk Memorandum of September 2014 (Minsk 1) and a package of measures in February 2015 (Minsk 2).


Dissolution measures include restoring the Ukrainian government's control of its borders, disarming the separatists, granting Donetsk and Luhansk a special status and expanded autonomy, and organizing local elections in the region.


Nord Stream 2

A pipeline to transport gas from Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea, with a length of 1,230 km, controlled by the Russian company Gazprom, which began in 2018 and ended in September 2021, despite US sanctions imposed on companies participating in its implementation, it has not yet worked, pending regulatory approval from Germany and the European Union.


Security guarantees

Russia’s demands for written security guarantees rose in two proposals it submitted on December 15, and Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov said that they were drafts of “a treaty between Russia and the United States on security guarantees, and an agreement on measures to guarantee the security of Russia and NATO member states,” to control the relationship between it and the alliance.


The guarantees are summed up in stopping the expansion of the alliance on the borders of Russia and not annexing Ukraine, and the US refraining from deploying new bases or additional weapons in the countries that joined the alliance after 1997, such as Poland and the Balkan countries and the Baltic states, as well as banning the deployment of medium-range missiles in Europe, according to ABC News. The Russian philosophy in these claims is based on the principle of indivisibility of security, which means that achieving security for a country or group of countries does not come at the expense of detracting from the security of another country, based on the description of the alliance and its leaders to Russia as an enemy, in parallel with following the policy of the open door, which means the openness of the alliance To accept the admission of new members.


Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe

The largest international regional organization in the world, comprising 57 countries from Europe, Asia and North America, and concerned with security concerns and has partnership relations with Asian countries (Japan, South Korea, Thailand, Afghanistan, Mongolia and Australia), and the countries of the southern Mediterranean.


NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a political-military alliance led by the United States, includes in its membership 30 countries representing North America and Europe, with the aim of cooperation in the fields of security and defense.


NATO establishes partnerships with neighboring countries, including the Mediterranean Dialogue (Egypt, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Mauritania, Jordan and Israel), the Peace Partner Countries (mainly Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Georgia), the Istanbul Cooperation Initiative countries (including the UAE, Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar) and the International Partners Group (including Australia, Pakistan and Iraq ).


NATO-Russia Council (NRC)

It was established in 2002 under the Rome Declaration on Relations between the Russian Federation and NATO, as an alternative to the Permanent Joint Council between the two sides in 1997, and based on its objectives in strengthening Russian-Atlantic relations, as a mechanism for consultation, cooperation and consensus building for joint decision-making and support for joint work between the two sides as partners Equals in the “NATO + 1” formula, according to the council’s website.


The work of the Council focuses on the security concerns of both parties, most notably counter-terrorism, confidence-building measures, and non-proliferation within more than 25 joint committees and working groups, and it meets monthly at the level of ambassadors and military representatives, and twice annually at the level of foreign and defense ministers. Recently, Russia withdrew its mission from him.


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